Nanoparticles to bacteria promote lysis, the process by which cells break down and ultimately die, which makes nanoparticles a superior and widely used antibacterial agent. Nano-scaled silver interaction with bacterial cells may release silver ions and generate ROS; interact with membrane proteins affecting their correct function; accumulate in the cell membrane affecting membrane permeability; enter the cell where it can generate ROS, release silver ions and affect DNA. Generated ROS may also affect DNA, cell membrane and membrane proteins and silver ion release will likely affect DNA and membrane proteins.

There is an increasing need to find alternative treatments to overcome infections in shrimps and avoid the massive economic losses in the aquaculture field. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are the most studied nanomaterial. The antiviral properties of AgNPs have been found their antiviral effect against viral infections. Taking advantage of the well-known antiviral properties of AgNPs against a wide spectrum of virus and bacteria. AgNPs has been recently reported to inactivate WSSV.